4 Causes of Pollution: How does this Affect the Environment?

Causes of Pollution: How does this Affect the Environment?

At the moment, environmental pollution is the most serious problem facing the world.

In the United States, 40 percent of rivers and 46 percent of lakes are polluted to the point where they are unsafe for fishing, swimming, or other aquatic activities. While this may come as a surprise given the fact that 1.2 trillion gallons of untreated storm water, industrial waste, and raw sewage are discharged into American waters each year.

One-third of the world’s topsoil has already been degraded, and at the current rate of soil degradation caused by improper agricultural and industrial practices, as well as deforestation, the majority of the world’s topsoil could be gone within the next 60 years, according to the World Resources Institute.

In 1952, the Great Smog in London claimed the lives of 8000 people. An extended period of cold weather combined with windless conditions resulted in a dense layer of airborne pollutants, primarily from coal-fired power plants, forming over the city, causing the disaster.

It is possible to pollute the environment from a variety of sources, each of which has its own impact on the environment and living organisms. The purpose of this article is to discuss the causes and consequences of various types of pollution.

Causes of Environmental Pollution?

The introduction of chemicals into bodies of water and soil as a result of improper disposal practices and agricultural activities, as well as noise and light pollution caused by cities and urbanization as a result of population growth, are just a few of the many causes of environmental pollution.

Animals, plants, and humans can all be harmed by air and noise pollution, which is harmful to them. Despite the fact that air and water pollution have been improving over the last few decades, they continue to be a major topic of discussion in the world today.

1. Air Pollution

Primary and secondary air pollutants are the two types of air pollutants that exist. Primary pollutants are those that are emitted directly from their source, whereas secondary pollutants are those that are formed when primary pollutants react with one another in the environment.

Using fossil fuels for transportation and electricity generation results in the release of both primary and secondary pollutants, making it one of the most significant sources of air pollution.

Car exhaust fumes contain a variety of hazardous gases and particulates, including hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide, among other things. These gases rise into the atmosphere and react with other gases in the atmosphere, resulting in the formation of even more toxic gas emissions.

Fine-particulate air pollution is a major contributor to fine-particulate air pollution, according to The Earth Institute, with the majority of Europe, Russia, China, and the United States being affected by this problem. According to current estimates, agricultural activities account for a greater proportion of fine-particulate air pollution in these countries than all other sources combined.

Ammonia is the most significant source of air pollution resulting from agricultural activities. Ammonia is released into the atmosphere as a gas as a result of the accumulation of livestock waste and the overfertilization of crops.

Aerosols are formed when gaseous ammonia reacts with other pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides and sulfates, that are produced by vehicles and industrial processes to form a cloud of particles. Aerosols are microscopic particles that can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause heart and pulmonary disease. They are found in the environment.

Pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides are some of the other agricultural air pollutants to be concerned about. All of these things contribute to water pollution as well.

2. Water Pollution

Nutrient pollution is caused by a variety of sources, including wastewater, sewage, and fertilizers. Water bodies are impacted by the high concentrations of nutrients found in these sources. This results in algae and weed growth, which can make the water unfit for drinking and deplete oxygen levels, resulting in aquatic organisms dying.

Applied pesticides and herbicides on crops and in residential areas concentrate in the soil and are transported to groundwater by rainwater and runoff. As a result, whenever someone drills a well for drinking water, the water must be tested for pollutants first.

Among the most significant contributors to water pollution are industrial wastes, which generate both primary and secondary pollutants such as sulfates, heavy metals such as lead and mercury, nitrates and phosphorus, as well as oil spills.

Solid waste is dumped directly into the ocean or sea in developing countries, where it accounts for approximately 70% of total waste. Serious problems arise as a result, including the harming and killing of sea creatures, which in turn has an adverse effect on humans.

3. Land & Soil Pollution

Land pollution is defined as the destruction of land as a result of human activities and the exploitation of land resources for non-agricultural purposes. This occurs when humans apply chemicals to the soil, such as pesticides and herbicides, improperly dispose of waste, and irresponsibly exploit minerals through mining, among other activities.

Septic tanks, sewage systems, leaching of hazardous substances from landfills, and direct discharge of industrial waste water into rivers and oceans are all ways in which soil can become polluted and contaminated.

It is possible that rain and flooding will transport pollutants from other already polluted lands to soil in new locations.

Agriculture activities such as over-farming and over-grazing cause the soil to lose its nutrient value and structural integrity, resulting in soil degradation, which is a different type of soil pollution.

Landfills have the potential to leach harmful substances into the soil and waterways, emit foul odors, and serve as breeding grounds for rodents that can spread disease to humans.

4. Noise & Light Pollution

Household sources, social events, commercial and industrial activities, and transportation are all considered to be sources of environmental pollution due to their contribution to noise pollution.

Light pollution is caused by the prolonged and excessive use of artificial lights at night, which can result in health problems in humans as well as disruption of natural cycles, which can include wildlife activity. Electronic billboards, night sports grounds, street and car lights, city parks, public places, airports, and residential areas are all examples of sources of light pollution.

What Effects does pollution have on the Environment?

Pollution has an impact on the land, the air, and the water on the planet because it releases pollutants into the atmosphere, the water, and the land. Dust, smog, and toxic gas emissions are some of the forms in which pollution manifests itself.

Additionally, pollution can be caused by human activity, in addition to natural sources of contamination. Mineral extraction and manufacturing plants, power plants, oil refineries, and transportation are examples of industries that release pollutants into the air or water.

1. Effects of Air Pollution

High levels of air pollution can increase the risk of heart attack, wheezing, coughing, and other breathing problems, as well as irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, according to the American Heart Association. Air pollution can also exacerbate pre-existing heart conditions, asthma, and other respiratory complications.

Due to pollution in the air, animals can suffer from a variety of health problems, including birth defects and reproductive failure as well as diseases.

Air pollution has a variety of environmental consequences in addition to the health consequences for humans and animals.

Acid rain contains high concentrations of nitric and sulfuric acids, which are produced by the release of oxides and sulfur oxides into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels. When acid rain falls on trees, it damages them as well as the soil and water bodies around them, making the water too acidic for fish and other aquatic life to survive.

The release of nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to the nitrogen that is responsible for toxic algae blooms.

The release of man-made compounds including hydrochlorofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and halons formerly used as coolants, foaming agents, pesticides, solvents, aerosol propellants, and fire-extinguishers are depleting the ozone. Protective layers such as those formed by the ozone layer in the stratosphere reflect harmful ultraviolet rays back into space, which would otherwise destroy animal and plant life.

2. Effects of Water Pollution

Humans, animals, and aquatic life are all at risk from water pollution, which is a serious problem.

The consequences of water pollution are dependent on the chemicals that are dumped and where they are dumped. In urbanized areas, bodies of water tend to be heavily polluted by the dumping of garbage and chemicals, which can be done legally or illegally by industrial plants, health care facilities, and individuals.

The death of aquatic creatures is by far the most severe consequence of water pollution, and it has the potential to disrupt the entire food chain. The pollutants cadmium, mercury, and lead are consumed by tiny aquatic organisms, which are then consumed by fish and shellfish, becoming more concentrated with each step up the food chain and causing serious health problems in humans and other animals.

It is possible that nutrient pollution will result in toxic algal blooms in drinking water sources, which will produce toxins that will kill fish and other aquatic animals. This toxic algae can cause serious health problems in humans when they are exposed to it directly, including neurological effects, respiratory problems, stomach and liver illness, and skin rashes.

When disinfectants used to treat drinking water come into contact with water that has been contaminated by toxic algae, they react and release dioxins, posing a significant problem. Dioxins are extremely toxic chemical compounds that have been linked to problems with reproduction and development, as well as cancer in some instances.

Nitrates, which are formed as a result of fertilizer use, can also contaminate drinking water, and according to the Environmental Protection Agency, babies who drink water that is high in nitrates can become seriously ill with blue-baby syndrome, which causes shortness of breath and blue-tinged skin and can be fatal if left untreated.

3. Effects of Land & Soil Pollution

Humans, animals, microorganisms, and aquatic life all suffer as a result of land and soil pollution, which has serious consequences. Environmental contamination such as contaminated land and soil can result in a variety of skin and respiratory problems, as well as various types of cancer.

These toxic substances come into direct contact with the human body through the consumption of fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soils, the consumption of contaminated drinking water, direct contact with the skin, and the breathing of polluted air that contains particles and dust.

When it comes to land degradation and soil erosion, deforestation is the most serious source of concern. Because of the clear-cutting of vegetation and tree cover, harsh conditions are created that devastate ecosystems and habitats.

Deforestation also contributes to an imbalance in atmospheric conditions, reducing the amount of carbon that is naturally removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. This is a serious problem, especially when you consider that the vast majority of pollution caused by humans is carbon-based.

4. Effects of Noise & Light Pollution

It has been shown that noise pollution can cause stress and anxiety, as well as headaches and irritability. It can also cause hearing loss and sleep loss, which can lead to decreased productivity.

Oil drilling rigs, submarines, and other vessels operating on and in the ocean can generate excessive noise, which has resulted in the injury or death of marine animals, particularly whales, in some cases.

Excessive light causes eye strain and stress, which can be harmful to our eyes and lower our overall quality of life. Light pollution also causes a decrease in the production of the hormone melatonin, which is responsible for helping us fall asleep, resulting in restlessness and exhaustion.

Thousands of species of animals such as mammal, insect, bird, and reptile are photoperiodic, which means that their movement patterns, mating patterns, growth and development cycles, and eating cycles are all influenced by natural light patterns. Light pollution can interfere with these natural behaviors and cycles, resulting in a reduction in the number of animals on the planet.


It is imperative that pollution be drastically reduced because it is destroying the environment in which we live, contaminating our food and water, causing diseases and cancers in humans and wildlife, and depleting the air we breathe and the atmosphere that shields us from harmful ultra-violet rays.

Every living person has a responsibility to protect the environment, and with the world’s population growing at an alarming rate, pollution problems are only going to get worse unless we take action.

Protecting the environment is a time-consuming and daunting task that necessitates continuous planning, government policies, as well as public and private sector involvement. The consequences of ignoring the problem, on the other hand, will be catastrophic, and life as we know it will come to an end.

Through waste reduction, recycling policies, the banning of dangerous agricultural chemicals, and the development of safe renewable energy sources, we can significantly reduce the amount of pollution that enters the environment on a yearly basis while simultaneously improving our standard of living.

Everyone has the right to breathe clean air, drink clean water, and take advantage of public lands and resources. If you have any suggestions for ways to reduce pollution, please leave a comment and let us know what you think.